In the world of software delivery, organizations are under constant pressure to improve their performance and deliver high-quality software to their customers. One effective way to measure and optimize software delivery performance is to use the DORA (DevOps Research and Assessment) metrics.

DORA metrics, developed by a renowned research team at DORA, provide valuable insights into the effectiveness of an organization's software delivery processes.

In this blog, we will dive deep into DORA metrics, exploring their importance, implementation, and strategies for improvement.

What are DORA Metrics?

Software delivery is a complex process that involves various stages, from development to deployment. Hence, organizations must have a clear understanding of how well their software delivery process is performing. This is where DORA metrics come into play.

Definition of DORA Metrics

DORA metrics offer a comprehensive framework for assessing software delivery performance based on four key metrics. These metrics are designed to measure critical aspects of the software delivery process and provide organizations with actionable data to enhance their delivery practices.

The 4 DORA Metrics

The Four DORA metrics

The four key metrics examined by DORA are:

  • Deployment Frequency
  • Lead Time for Changes
  • Time to Restore Service
  • Change Failure Rate

Let's explore each of these metrics in detail to understand their significance better.

A Closer Look: Observability vs Monitoring! Checkout the details here!

1. Deployment Frequency:

Deployment Frequency measures how often an organization deploys its software to production. This metric reflects the organization's ability to deliver changes quickly and frequently, minimizing lead time and enabling faster feedback loops.

High deployment frequency indicates a mature and efficient software delivery process, while low frequency may signify constraints and opportunities for improvement.

2. Lead Time for Changes:

Lead Time for Changes measures the time it takes for a change to go from code commit to production deployment. This metric reflects the speed at which an organization can deliver value to its customers.

A shorter lead time indicates a streamlined and efficient delivery process, allowing organizations to respond quickly to market demands and customer needs. On the other hand, a longer lead time may imply delays and inefficiencies that hinder delivery performance.

3. Time to Restore Service:

Time to Restore Service measures how long it takes an organization to recover from a service incident or outage. This metric reflects the organization's ability to identify and resolve issues efficiently, minimizing downtime and customer impact.

A shorter time to restore service indicates a robust and resilient infrastructure, allowing organizations to maintain high availability and deliver consistent customer experiences. Conversely, a longer time to restore service may indicate areas for improvement in incident management and response processes.

How to setup an IT War Room? Read the step-by-step process here!

4. Change Failure Rate:

Change Failure Rate measures the percentage of changes that result in service degradation or failure. This metric reflects the stability and reliability of an organization's software delivery process.

A low change failure rate signifies a mature and well-tested delivery process, minimizing the risk of disruptions and ensuring smooth service delivery. Conversely, a high change failure rate may suggest underlying issues in quality assurance, testing, or change management practices that need to be addressed.

Why are DORA metrics important for DevOps?

Implementing DORA metrics can be a game-changer for organizations aiming to enhance their software delivery performance. These metrics offer a standardized framework for measuring and comparing software delivery processes across different teams and organizations.

Through DORA metrics, organizations can identify bottlenecks, measure the impact of process improvements, and track progress over time.

Furthermore, DORA metrics provide a common language for discussions around software delivery performance, fostering collaboration and alignment within teams and organizations.

They enable stakeholders to have meaningful conversations about the strengths and weaknesses of their software delivery process, facilitating continuous improvement and innovation.

How to Calculate DORA Metrics

Here are the formulas for calculating each DORA metrics:

Deployment Frequency:

Deployment frequency is one metric that can be used to assess a DevOps team's performance.

The number of deployments made in a given period, such as a month, can be divided by the number of days in that period to determine the frequency of deployment.

For instance, if a team delivered code 15 times throughout a month within 31 days, that would equate to 0.48 deployments per day (15/31).

Lead Time for Changes:

Here's how you can calculate Lead Time for Change:

  • Find where the change request process begins and where it finishes. This can be different for each company, but usually, it begins when someone asks for a change (RFC) and finishes when the change is put into action.
  • Write down the time when the change process starts and when it ends for each request.
  • Figure out how much time passes between the start and finish. This is referred to as the "lead time" for the change"
  • Do this same thing for all the change requests in a specific time, like a week or a month.
  • Look at the information to see if you notice any patterns or ways to do things better.

Time to Restore Service:

You can find out how long it takes to fix things after they break by adding up all the times they were broken and dividing it by how many times things broke in a specific time. It's best to fix things quickly, ideally within a day.

Change Failure Rate:

Change Failure Rate can be calculated using this formula:

[No. of failed deployments/ No. of Production Deployments] * 100%

What are the popular observability tools used by organizations? Check the list here!

The Benefits of Tracking DORA Metrics

Tracking DORA metrics can provide a number of benefits, including:

Improved decision-making

DORA metrics can be used to identify areas for improvement in the software delivery process. This information can be used to make informed decisions about how to improve performance.

For example, if a team has a high change failure rate, it may indicate that they need to invest in new tools or processes to improve their testing or deployment process.

Increased delivery speed

Tracking lead time for changes can help teams identify bottlenecks and inefficiencies in their software delivery process.

Once these bottlenecks have been identified, teams can implement changes to improve their efficiency and speed up the delivery of new features and updates.

Reduced risk of failure

By tracking their change failure rate, teams can identify areas where they need to improve their quality control processes. This can help to reduce the risk of deploying faulty code to production and causing outages or other problems.

Improved customer satisfaction

Delivering high-quality software more quickly and reliably can improve customer satisfaction. Customers are more likely to be satisfied with a product that is constantly being updated with new features and bug fixes.


The Challenges of Tracking DORA Metrics

Tracking DORA metrics can be challenging for a number of reasons, such as:

Data collection and aggregation:

One of the biggest challenges of tracking DORA metrics is collecting and aggregating data from a variety of sources. This can be a complex and time-consuming task, especially for large organizations with complex IT environments.

There are a number of tools and services available to help organizations collect and aggregate DORA metrics data. However, these tools can be expensive and complex to implement. Additionally, it is essential to ensure that the data being collected is accurate and reliable.

Cultural resistance to change

Another challenge in tracking DORA metrics is cultural resistance to change. Some organizations may be resistant to changing their existing processes and workflows in order to track DORA metrics.

This could result from various factors, including:

  • Fear of disruption: Some teams may be concerned that tracking DORA metrics will require them to change their existing processes and workflows in a way that will disrupt their work.
  • A lack of understanding of the benefits: Some teams may need help understanding the benefits of tracking DORA metrics or how it can help them improve their performance.
  • A belief that existing processes are already working well: Some teams may believe that their existing processes are already working well and that tracking DORA metrics is unnecessary.

Lack of executive buy-in

Executive buy-in is essential for the successful implementation of any new initiative, including tracking DORA metrics.

Executives need to understand the benefits of tracking DORA metrics and how it can help the organization improve its software delivery performance. They also should help team with the resources and support for successful implementation.

Want to know how to become a Senior SRE faster? Read the tips here!

Using DORA Metrics to Improve DevOps Performance

DORA metrics can be used to improve DevOps performance in three key areas:

1. Value stream management

Value stream management is a process for optimizing the flow of value through an organization. DORA metrics can be used to identify bottlenecks and inefficiencies in the software delivery process.

Once bottlenecks and inefficiencies have been identified, DORA metrics can be used to track progress and measure the impact of improvement efforts.

2. Tracking and reporting

DORA metrics can be used to track and report on the performance of DevOps teams over time. This data can be used to identify trends and patterns and to make informed decisions about how to improve performance.

For example, a team may notice that their lead time for changes has been increasing over time. This could indicate that the team needs to invest in new tools or processes to improve their efficiency.

The metrics also help compare the performance of different DevOps teams within an organization. This information can be used to identify teams that are performing well and to learn from their best practices.

3. Continuous improvement

DORA metrics can be used to drive continuous improvement in DevOps teams. By tracking their performance over time and identifying areas for improvement, teams can continuously iterate on their processes and practices.

For example, a team may track their change failure rate over time. If they see that their change failure rate is increasing, they can investigate the root cause of the problem and implement corrective actions.

Actions to improve DORA Metrics

Here are some ways by which you can improve DORA metrics for your organization:

Lead Time for Changes

Some of the actions one can take to improve cycle time:

a. Remove reviewer bottlenecks: Spot the bottleneck and get them to either train or encourage more reviewers to shed their load.

b. Spot rework cycles: Developers get burnt out by repeated asks to change by the reviewer. Managers can stop this negative spiral by making planning process more organized.

Deployment Frequency

Some of the actions one can take to improve cycle time:

a. Work with devops to reduce the time taken to deploy. Deployment frequency is inversely proportional to the time it takes to deploy.

b.Low deployment frequency means lower iteration which might not be suited if you’re a fast growing team.

Change Failure Rate

A high change failure rate definitely leads to low customer satisfaction.

Engineering Managers can work through low CFR by:

a. Adding a checklist before deployment to avoid a failure later.

b. Spotting the patterns of bugs/failures in the team. Sometimes there’s a particular repo/developer falling off the guardrail which should be spotted and rectified.


MTTR can be improved by investing in the right incident management software such as Zenduty.

a. Alert notification and escalation: Zenduty can notify the right people on the right channels when incidents occur, ensuring that they can respond quickly and effectively.

b. Incident management: The platform provides a central place to manage incidents, making it easier to track progress, collaborate with team members, and resolve incidents quickly.

Middleware x Zenduty for DORA Metrics

Middleware and Zenduty together offer a robust solution for tracking DORA Metrics.

Middleware sits on top of the team's existing tools like Github, JIRA, Zenduty & Calendar and provides managers actionable insights to run their team efficiently and prevent their engineers from burning out.

Middleware helps collect crucial performance data from various sources, while Zenduty's incident management platform provides a centralized system for incident tracking and resolution.

By integrating these two tools, organizations can streamline incident response and gain valuable insights into their software delivery processes, including metrics like lead time for changes, change failure rate, and mean time to recover (MTTR).

If you want to explore more about this integration, connect with us!

What are the 4 DORA metrics?

The 4 DORA metrics are:

  • Deployment frequency: How often an organization successfully deploys code to production.
  • Lead time for changes: The duration from committing a change to its deployment in production.
  • Change Failure Rate: The proportion of deployments that result in production failures.
  • Mean Time to Recovery (MTTR): The time it takes for an organization to bounce back from a production failure.

What are some tips for calculating DORA metrics accurately?

Here are some additional tips for calculating the DORA metrics:

  • Use a consistent time period for all of the metrics. This will make it easier to compare the metrics over time.
  • Be clear about what constitutes a successful deployment and a failed deployment. This will help you to ensure that the metrics are calculated accurately.
  • Track the metrics for all of your production deployments, not just a subset. This will give you a more complete picture of your team's performance.
  • Use a tool to automate the calculation of the metrics. This will save you time and effort.

What are the benefits of tracking DORA metrics?

Benefits of tracking DORA metrics:

  • Identify areas for improvement
  • Measure progress over time
  • Align business and IT objectives
  • Improve collaboration and communication
  • Increase customer satisfaction

What are the challenges of tracking DORA metrics?

  • Data collection: Collecting data from multiple sources accurately and completely.
  • Definition of metrics: Defining the metrics in a way that is specific to your organization.
  • Benchmarking: Benchmarking your team's performance against other teams with different contexts and challenges.
  • Cultural change: Embracing change and using the metrics to improve performance.

How can I use DORA metrics to improve my DevOps performance?

To improve your DevOps performance with DORA metrics, first track them over time to identify areas for improvement. Then, make changes to your development and deployment processes based on your findings.

For example, if you have a high change failure rate, you can investigate why this is happening and make changes to your testing and deployment processes to reduce the number of failures.

How can I get started with DORA metrics?

To get started with DORA metrics:

1. Define what each metric means for your organization and how you will collect the data.

2. Start tracking the metrics over time and identify areas where you can improve.

What are the best practices for tracking and reporting DORA metrics?

Track DORA metrics consistently and over time, using tools to automate data collection and reporting. Share the results with the team and stakeholders to identify areas for improvement and make changes to your DevOps performance.

What are the common mistakes made when tracking DORA metrics?

Here are some common mistakes made when tracking DORA metrics:

  • Tracking too many metrics at once. It is important to focus on the most important metrics for your organization.
  • Not defining the metrics clearly or consistently. Everyone in the team should understand the definitions of the metrics and use them consistently.
  • Not using tools to automate data collection and reporting. This can be time-consuming and error-prone.
  • Not tracking the metrics over time. This makes it difficult to identify trends and areas for improvement.
  • Not sharing the results with the team and stakeholders. This can lead to silos and a lack of understanding of the team's performance.

Anjali Udasi

As a technical writer, I love simplifying technical terms and write on latest technologies. Apart from that, I am interested in learning more about mental health and create awareness around it.