Tech systems and infrastructures are subject to constant incidents.However, the ability to manage these situations hinges on the proper monitoring of critical Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) within the incident management process.

Without these metrics, minor issues can escalate into significant issues, such as unplanned system downtime, compromised customer satisfaction, and ultimately, financial losses.

In this article, we'll discuss the significance of KPIs for incident management and metrics that can significantly enhance your organization's incident management processes.

Understand everything about SRE vs DevOps here!

The Role of KPIs in Incident Management: Explained

To handle disruptions effectively, organizations need a strong incident management process. Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) are crucial in this process. They offer clear measurements that highlight where an organization's incident response is strong and where it needs improvement.

Tracking and analyzing these KPIs empowers organizations to:

  1. Minimize Downtime: Identifying bottlenecks and areas for improvement streamlines workflows and speeds up incident resolution, ultimately reducing system disruptions.
  2. Optimize Team Performance: Tracking metrics like response times and team workloads helps allocate resources strategically, ensuring efficient incident management.
  3. Enhance Customer Satisfaction:Proactively addressing incidents and minimizing downtime improves overall customer satisfaction by providing uninterrupted service.
  4. Prevent Recurring Incidents: Analyzing KPIs reveals trends and recurring problems to address vulnerabilities before they escalate into major incidents.

How to Choose Incident Management KPIs

Here are the steps for selecting the appropriate metrics for incident management:

Step Description
1. Identify Objectives Determine incident management goals and objectives.
2. Understand Stakeholder Needs Consider the needs and expectations of stakeholders.
3. Review Industry Standards Research industry best practices and standards.
4. Align with Business Goals Ensure selected KPIs align with overall business objectives.
5. Consider Operational Impact Assess feasibility and operational impact of measuring each KPI.
6. Select Relevant Metrics Choose KPIs that directly measure progress towards objectives.
7. Set Targets Establish realistic targets or benchmarks for each KPI.
8. Continuously Evaluate Regularly review and adjust KPI selection based on evolving needs.
Explore best practices for Incident Management in this detailed guide here!

Top Key Metrics to Monitoring for Effective Incident Management

Here are the most commonly used  key indicators to track for prompt incident response, reduced downtime, and enhanced customer satisfaction:

Incident Management KPIs

Tracking Number of Alerts

Definition: It tracks the number of alerts generated by an alerting tool in a specific period of time. This metric is useful for incident management teams as it provides insight into the frequency of issues and incidents occurring within a system.

Importance: Tracking the number of alerts generated can help incident management teams identify patterns and trends in system performance. Large spikes in the number of alerts generated could indicate an issue that needs to be addressed promptly.

Also, monitoring alert trends over time helps gauge the effectiveness of incident management processes and the outcomes of improvement efforts.

Example: In a monitoring system, the number of alerts generated per hour spikes from an average of 20 to 100 alerts, indicating a potential system outage. This prompts the incident management team to investigate and address the underlying issue to minimize downtime.

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Incidents over Time

Definition: The average frequency of incidents during a particular period, such as weekly, monthly, quarterly, or annually from a specific service or application.

Importance: Monitoring the number of incidents over time can highlight any unusual patterns or trends, indicating high or low frequency of incidents in a service or an application.

Example: Over the past month, the average number of incidents per week for a critical application has increased from 5 to 15, signaling a potential issue that requires investigation by the incident management team.

Read more about the techniques used in incident analysis here!

MTBF (Mean Time Between Failures)

Definition: It is used to measure the average time between repairable failures of a technical product.

Importance: MTBF is an important metric that helps organizations track the availability and reliability of their products. By calculating the MTBF, companies can identify how often their products are experiencing failures and work to improve their performance.

If MTBF is lower than expected, it prompts investigations into why failures occur, leading to improvements in product processes. Monitoring MTBF helps enhance product quality, reduce downtime, and increase customer satisfaction.

MTTD (Mean Time To Detect)

Definition: It is a metric that measures the average time it takes for a team to discover an issue, often used in cybersecurity to detect attacks and breaches.

Importance: MTTD is an important metric for incident response because it measures the speed at which a team can identify and respond to an issue. A longer MTTD can mean that the team is taking longer to detect and respond to an incident, increasing the risk of damage to the system and data loss.

Through this metric, teams can identify areas for improvement in their detection and response processes and optimize their incident response efforts.

Example: The MTTD for a network operations team is determined to be 30 minutes, indicating that, on average, it takes 30 minutes to detect network outages or performance degradation after they occur.

MTTA (Mean Time to Acknowledge)

Definition: The average duration between receiving a system alert and acknowledging the issue by a team member.

Importance: MTTA highlights the promptness and efficiency of your team in addressing and responding to system alerts.

Example: Imagine a network monitoring system triggers an alert for a server overload.

A team with a low MTTA would quickly acknowledge the alert (e.g., within 5 minutes) and begin investigating the cause of the overload. This allows them to identify and address the issue before it impacts system performance or user experience.

Conversely, a high MTTA (e.g., 30 minutes) might indicate delays in recognizing the alert, potentially leading to a longer resolution time and a more significant impact on the system.

MTTR (Mean Time to Resolution)

Definition: The average time taken to respond to or resolve an incident.

Importance: MTTR measures the promptness and efficiency of your team in responding to or resolving incidents, helping you assess their effectiveness.

Example:  Let's say an e-commerce website experiences a product page loading error. The IT team aims for a low MTTR to address such incidents swiftly. If an error occurs, a faster resolution time (e.g., within 30 minutes) minimizes the duration of the issue and ensures customers can access product information quickly.

This improves customer experience compared to a scenario where it takes hours to fix the error.

Average Incident Response Time(AIRT)

Definition: AIRT represents the average total time it takes to address and resolve an incident, from initial reporting to final resolution.

Importance: Tracking AIRT allows you to assess your team's overall efficiency in handling incidents. A lower AIRT indicates a smoother and faster incident response process.

Example: Let's say an e-commerce website experiences a critical payment processing error. The team strives for a low AIRT and if an error occurs, they track the entire process:

  • Time to acknowledge the reported error (MTTA)
  • Time to assign the issue to the payments expert
  • Time spent investigating the root cause
  • Time taken to implement a fix and test it thoroughly
  • Time for final verification that the payment process functions normally

Timestamps (or timeline)

Definition: They refer to encoded information about what happened at specific times during, before, or after an incident. It provides essential data to assess the incident management health and come up with strategies to improve.

Importance: Timestamps help teams build out timelines of the incident, along with the lead up and response efforts. Having a clear, shared timeline is one of the most helpful artifacts during an incident postmortem.

It helps identify the root cause of the incident, improve incident response times and prevent future incidents. With timestamps, teams can track when alerts were received, when team members acknowledged and started working on the incident, and when it was resolved, helping to identify bottlenecks or areas for improvement.

First Touch Resolution Rate

Definition: The percentage of incidents resolved during the first occurrence with no subsequent alerts.

Importance: Measuring this metric helps evaluate the effectiveness of your incident management system over time. A high first touch resolution rate signifies a well-configured and mature system.

Example: The First Touch Resolution Rate for a technical support team is determined to be 80%, indicating that 80% of reported incidents are resolved during the initial occurrence without the need for further alerts or escalations.

On-Call Time

Definition: The duration a particular employee or contractor spends on call.

Importance: Monitoring this metric enables you to make necessary adjustments to your on-call rotation, ensuring that employees do not become overwhelmed or exhausted.

Example: The on-call time for an engineer last week was 20 hours, indicating the amount of time they spent available to respond to incidents outside regular working hours. Tracking this metric helps ensure employees maintain a healthy work-life balance and are not overburdened by on-call responsibilities.

Escalation Rate

Definition: The frequency at which incidents are escalated to higher level team members.

Importance: A high escalation rate could indicate skill gaps among team members, ineffective workflows, or the need for additional training.

Example: Last month, out of every 10 incidents reported to the support team, 3 needed to be passed on to more experienced team members for resolution. This shows that some issues were beyond the initial team's expertise, highlighting areas where further training or support may be needed to handle similar incidents in the future.

SLOs (Service level objectives)

Definition: Service level objectives (SLOs) are performance targets specified in a service level agreement (SLA) that define the expected level of service quality for customers. It outlines specific metrics like uptime that are important to track to ensure the company is meeting its commitments and delivering high-quality customer service.

Importance: SLOs, or Service level objectives, are important metrics to track within an SLA. They specify a particular metric, such as uptime, and ensure that the company is meeting its obligations to provide good customer service.

Example:  An e-commerce company includes SLOs within its SLA with a cloud hosting provider.  Here are some potential SLO examples:

  • Uptime SLO: The website will be available 99.95% of the time.
  • Response Time SLO: The average response time for customer support inquiries will be less than 2 hours.
  • Order Processing SLO: 99% of all orders will be processed successfully within 1 minute.

SLA (Service Level Agreement)

Definition: The Service Level Agreement is a contractual agreement between a service provider and its clients that outlines the expectations, responsibilities, and metrics for the service provided.

Importance: Monitoring the SLA can ensure that the provider is meeting the agreed-upon metrics, such as uptime, responsiveness, and availability. The SLA should be reviewed regularly to reflect any changes in service levels or client requirements.

Example:  Imagine a company outsources its IT infrastructure management to a service provider.  The SLA between them might specify:

  • Uptime guarantee of 99.9% for critical business applications
  • Response time of 30 minutes for all high-priority support tickets
  • Resolution timeframe of 4 hours for critical incidents

If uptime falls below 99.9%, the company might be entitled to financial compensation from the provider as outlined in the SLA.

What are the phases of incident response lifecycle? Read here!

Incident Cost per Ticket

Definition: The total cost incurred to resolve an incident.

Importance: Calculating the cost per ticket allows you to evaluate the efficiency of your incident management system and find ways to optimize resources. It aids in budgeting for incident management and making informed decisions about resource allocation.

Example: Resolving a software glitch involved three hours of developer time, totaling $300, and one hour of system downtime, resulting in a loss of $200 in sales. The total cost per ticket for this incident is $500.

System Uptime

Definition: System uptime refers to the percentage of time your system is operational and available to your customers or end-users.

Importance: This metric is critical in demonstrating how reliable your service is. Higher uptime percentages indicate a more reliable service, while lower percentages can suggest potential issues that require investigation.

Industry standards for acceptable uptime usually range from 99.9% to 99.99%. While achieving 100% uptime is almost impossible, the goal should always be to maintain the highest possible uptime.

The main objective of incident management is to detect and resolve incidents as quickly as possible to minimize the impact on end-users. If red flags are not detected early enough, outages or other issues can occur, impacting the service's reliability.

Team Performance KPIs

The performance of every team is unique, and they face specific challenges and customer expectations. Hence, it is vital to evaluate how well the system performs and how effectively the incident management maintains the dependability of the service or product.

Monitoring and tracking the team's performance using key metrics allows for the identification of weaknesses and issues. Continuous improvement in incident management maturity helps avoid unexpected downtime or outages.

Understanding Incidents Beyond KPIs

While Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) can be helpful in tracking incident management, they have their limitations.

It’s easy to rely on shallow data, and simply knowing that your team isn’t resolving incidents fast enough doesn’t provide a complete solution.

Insights are necessary to understand how and why teams are or aren’t resolving issues, and to determine whether incidents being compared are actually comparable.

KPIs can’t provide an understanding of how teams approach complex issues or explain why time between incidents is decreasing rather than increasing.

KPIs are useful as a diagnostic tool and starting point, but insights are required to gain a more comprehensive understanding of incident management and make real improvements.


In conclusion, implementing KPIs is an essential step towards improving your incident management process. By leveraging KPIs such as MTTR, MTBF, MTTD, SLOs, and alerts created, you can gain valuable insights and improve the overall health of your incident management process.

At Zenduty, we offer a comprehensive incident management platform that can help you streamline your incident management process and track KPIs in real-time.

Our platform enables you to automate alerting, collaborate with team members, and resolve incidents faster.

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General FAQs for Incident Management KPIs

What is incident management? Incident management refers to the process of identifying, analyzing, and resolving incidents or problems that occur within an organization's systems, infrastructure, or services.
What are KPIs in incident management? Key Performance Indicators i.e., KPIs in incident management are metrics used to measure the success of incident management processes. These metrics are used to track progress, identify areas for improvement, and ensure that incidents are resolved effectively and efficiently.
How can KPIs help transform incident management? KPIs can help transform incident management by providing a framework for measuring performance and identifying areas for improvement. By tracking KPIs, organizations can better understand how well their incident management processes are working, and make adjustments to improve efficiency, reduce costs, and minimize downtime.
What are some incident management KPI examples? Examples of KPIs for incident management include mean time to detect (MTTD), mean time to respond (MTTR), first call resolution rate (FCR), Service Level Agreement (SLA), System Uptime, Service level objectives (SLOs).
How can organizations implement KPIs in their incident management processes? Organizations can implement KPIs in their incident management processes by first identifying the KPIs that are most relevant to their business goals and objectives. They should then establish a system for tracking and measuring these KPIs, and use the data gathered to make informed decisions about how to improve incident management processes.
What are some best practices for using KPIs in incident management? Best practices for using KPIs in incident management include selecting KPIs that align with business goals, establishing clear benchmarks for success, ensuring data accuracy and consistency, and regularly reviewing and updating KPIs to ensure they remain relevant and effective.
How can KPIs be used to drive continuous improvement in incident management? KPIs can be used to drive continuous improvement in incident management by providing data that can be used to identify areas for improvement, set goals, and measure progress. By regularly reviewing and updating KPIs, organizations can continually optimize their incident management processes and improve overall performance.


Along with Anjali Udasi

I love writing about the latest trends and best practices in the tech industry, and I always try to keep things interesting by throwing in a few football references here and there.