This guide explores how to instrument SQL queries within Django, using the built-in ORM capabilities to facilitate query logging, debugging, performance monitoring, and more.

Table of Contents

Understanding BaseDatabaseWrapper

Django's BaseDatabaseWrapper class represents an individual database connection, serving as an interface between your application and the underlying database engine. This class has various methods and attributes to facilitate SQL execution and manage the connection.

Location: db.backends.base

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How to Monitor SQL Queries at Runtime?

To monitor and manipulate SQL queries during execution, the execute_wrappers attribute is used within the BaseDatabaseWrapper. This attribute is a stack of functions that wrap calls to execute() and executemany() in CursorWrapper.

Execute Wrappers: Control Layer of SQL Execution

execute_wrappers functions act as middleware, intervening in SQL query execution. They accept five parameters: execute, sql, params, many, and context, allowing inspection or modification of the SQL statement and parameters.

Developers can utilize the execute_wrapper function to append custom wrappers for advanced capabilities such as logging and performance monitoring.

Execute wrappers are a subpart of the backend[mysql, psogres] connection class class DatabaseWrapper(BaseDatabaseWrapper): from where one can create CursorWrapper.

In the normal Django way, sqlcompilor creates the cursor of the CursorWrapper class, which executes execute_wrappers [i.e execute_wrappers is a list]

BASIC Flow:

Model > ModelManager > queryset > SQLCOMPILOR [initialises the cursor] > DB-BACKEND-BASE

Enter CursorWrapper: The Execution Orchestrator

The CursorWrapper class manages query execution, invoking functions in execute_wrappers sequentially, with the required parameters. This class ensures adherence to specific protocols and logic.

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Logging Configuration

In your local environment, add the following to your logger configs in settings.py:

"django.db": { "handlers": ["console"], "level": "DEBUG", }

Logging when debug is equal to False

Utilize the following code to log SQL queries:

from django.db import connection, connectionsimport logging def logsql(execute, sql, params, many, context): start = time.monotonic() try: return execute(sql, params, many, context) finally: duration = time.monotonic() - start        logging.debug( "(%.3f) %s; args=%s", duration, sql, params, extra={"duration": duration, "sql": sql, "params": params}, )

Examples

Instrumenting a particular View

def my_view(request): context = {...} template_name = ... with connection.execute_wrapper(logsql): pass

Instrumenting every query in the Django application using middleware

class DatabaseInstrumentationMiddleware: def __init__(self, get_response): self.get_response = get_response def __call__(self, request): with connection.execute_wrapper(DatabaseLogger()): return self.get_response(request) class DatabaseLogger: def __call__(self, execute, sql, params, many, context): start = time.monotonic() try: return execute(sql, params, many, context) finally: duration = time.monotonic() - start            logging.debug( "(%.3f) %s; args=%s", duration, sql, params, extra={"duration": duration, "sql": sql, "params": params}, )

Note

For multi-DB setups or read replicas, use connections["name"] to instrument a particular database connection. By default, only the default database is instrumented.

For more Ref : https://docs.djangoproject.com/en/4.2/topics/db/instrumentation/

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Originally published @https://github.com/Kdheeru12/nightowlideas/blob/master/django/SQL_Query_Monitoring_Django.md